Blog: Empathy Through Design: Developing an AI Ethics Design Toolkit For Accountable, Responsible and…
Accountability, Responsibility and Transparency Statement
This inquiry declares the need for AI ethics design to practice what it seeks — to be accountable, responsible and transparent. In the spirit of that declaration, this proposal is an early draft, written as part of an application to join the ART-AI doctoral program at the University of Bath. I welcome your comments, questions and inquiries via Twitter at @bxmx. This draft was posted online after submitted in application to the University Bath ART-AI doctoral program.
AI ethics standards, guidelines and declarations have moved from straightforward robot-based “Laws” (Asimov, 1950, Murphy and Wood, 2009, Boden, Bryson et al., 2011, Prescott and Szollosy, eds., 2017), towards principles-based AI standards, guidelines and declarations (Asilomar principles, Future of Life Institute, 2017, Association for Computing Machinery, 2017, Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence, 2017, Future Society Science, Law and Society Initiative Economou, 2017, the Montreal Declaration, 2017, IEEE General Principles of Ethical Autonomous and Intelligent Systems, 2017, UNI Global Union, 2017, Pichai, AI for Google, 2018, Ethically Aligned Design, First Edition IEEE, 2019).
While many of the later principles and declarations documents emerge from the earlier works, there is an ever-growing list of individual standards, principles and declarations which nascent AI ethics are called to be based upon. This burgeoning corpus of AI ethics standards has led to calls for ethics to be “normalized in the education and research of AI.” (Choudhury, Lee, Kurenkov, 2019). The hoped-for outcome of normalized AI ethics will be AI system deployments which are accountable, responsible and transparent — vital to support human flourishing as AI develops and matures.
Normalization of AI ethics education faces steep challenges while presenting tremendous opportunities to evolve AI ethics design processes themselves in ways that will foster closer collaboration and human empathy; key needs for human flourishing. AI’s ways of “knowing us” can, if we design the process for designing accountable, responsible and transparent AI systems well, profoundly enhance our ways of knowing each other. To harness this tremendous opportunity, we need to move past standards, beyond design practices guidelines, and into designing AI ethics design practices which build trusted communities, those which are themselves accountable, responsible and transparent.
Current AI ethics standards, guidelines and declarations are complex, often contradictory documents, developed in different jurisdictions, with varying local, national and international scales and hazy enforcement mechanisms. The Montreal Declaration itself has over 64 standards and principles. Collectively, 2017 alone saw the publication of over 200 different AI ethics standards statements. This sheer volume of AI ethics standards creates complexity, when complexity is already one of the “black box problems” with AI itself (Floridi, 2017).
Additionally, despite AI development in China attracting the largest amounts of venture capital globally in 2017, and the powerful impact of sheer population size on Chinese machine learning data sets (Saiidi, 2018) ,the Chinese Association for Artificial Intelligence has only just begun to start to set up draft AI ethics guidelines, a move echoed by Chinese private sector leaders (Jing, 2019). Some current non-Chinese AI ethics standards, guidelines and declarations appear to be in direct cultural conflict with Chinese values. This conflict threatens to widen gulfs between centres of AI development, deployment and AI ethics practice.
While grappling with the vast current and potential impacts of AI on society, the complexity of these issues has in turn created a complex standards environment that is in and of itself a form of “black box”. The so-called “AI race” is mirrored by an AI ethics standards race. As Virginia Dignum reminds us, competition here is not the answer; there is no AI race. Either we all win together, or we all lose together (Dignum, 2019).
Additionally, many of the standards statements, while born of good intentions, focus on avoiding (so-called) AI failures, instead of focussing on achieving AI outcomes that foster human flourishing. “AI failures” are rarely soley failures of the algorithms themselves (Calvin, 2018). The failures are instead most often the result of the compounding of systemic failures that the use of AI highlights. AI is neither the sole root cause of biased parole decisions (Corbett-Davies, et al. 2017) nor a fatal collision involving a self-driving car (Neidermeyer, 2019). AI instead, acts like a lens which calls into focus the existence of larger complex, interacting, multi-systemic failures.
Yet, in blaming AI for the failure of human systems, it is often anthropomorphized by imbuing it with a form of pseudo-moral agency. Overly humanizing AI results in studies and articles calling out “killer autonomous cars” through trolley problem discussions which needlessly explore what decisions a self-driving car should make (Awad, Rahwan, 2018) or declaring that biased judge-bots rein in courtrooms.(Angwin, Julia et al. 2016, Noughton, 2016) Anthropomorphizing AI misses the collective systemic inequalities that led to circumstances in which failure was essentially inevitable (Corbett-Davies, 2017 Neidermeyer, 2019) distracting us from acting to start to address these inequalities. Further, shifting the locus of moral agency to AI disempowers humans as the creators of artifacts like artificial intelligence and the systems we create which use AI, in part, to solve problems (Bryson, 2010, Floridi, 2019).
“Calling a robot a moral agent is not only false, but an abrogation of our own responsibility.” (Bryson, 2010)
This abrogation of human responsibility to machines (Bryson, 2010) through the trolley problem, and other practices which mistakenly envision machines as moral agents creates additional systems-based failure risks. (Bar-Haim, et al., 2007, Bachnio et al., 2017) Removing human connection to the decision making process reduces the vital emotional connection to ethical decisions. (Greene, 2001)
Calls for ethics by design (Craiglia et al. 2018, Floridi, 2018) as key to evolving our use of AI are made in many of the standards, guideline and declaration processes of the past few years. Ethical design in these complex, multi-system environments requires more than standards and more than design process guidelines. It requires revolutionary process design approaches which engage those who are the human components of these systems. Ecotone design approaches offer much towards informing a new innovation-focused, human-centred design process in mangrove-like, grey area ecology spaces (Pendleton-Julian, 2009). Ecotone design approaches mirror those found in Agile processes (Beck, Kent et al, 2001, Singh 2008), but presents a matured, user-centred, outcome-focused elastic process built on a foundation of accountability, responsibility and transparency.
“The twenty-first century is one that promises perpetual and persistent change. The ecotone analogy, as more than a metaphor — as a structural and operational construct — is invaluable as a model that uses disturbance and change to develop talent that can sustain itself and thrive on disturbance and change. This learning environment is intended to cultivate the education/evolution of… new capacities, behaviors, and tendencies that are open, adaptable and elastic.” (Pendleton-Julian, 2009).
Pendleton-Julian’s ecotone design approach above mirrors the second Agile principle “(w)elcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer’s competitive advantage.” (Beck, Kent et al, 2001)
Agile development processes place the customer/user at the centre. This same user-focus is echoed in UX design principles (Unger and Chandler, 2012), and in calls for users to be at the centre of engagement, technology and AI designs (Salvo 2001, Couldry, 2003, Findeli 2018, Floridi, 2019).
“Ludifying and enveloping are a matter of designing, or sometimes re-designing, the realities with which we deal (Floridi 2019). So, the foreseeable future of AI will depend on our design abilities and ingenuity.” (Floridi, 2019)
Emerging AI ethics design principles handbooks, such as IBM’s Everyday Ethics for Artificial Intelligence: A practical guide for designers & developers (Cutler, Pribić and Humphrey, 2018) and the IEEE’s Ethically Aligned Design, First Edition: A Vision for Prioritizing Human Well-being with Autonomous and Intelligent Systems (Havens et al, 2019) are the current steps in creating design processes. Courageously iterative, these guides are aimed at designers, developers and members of technology associations and standards bodies, but remain outside of the corpus of policy makers, business leaders and most importantly, end users.
For all humans to harness AI’s potential to enhance our flourishing we must be able to foster trust through how we design and deploy these tools. In order to foster trust we must build empathy with each other as essential parts of AI systems. Working together broadly is the only way forward. “Collaboration requires sufficient commonality of collaborating intelligences to create empathy — the capacity to model the other’s goals based on one’s own.” Bryson, IEEE. p 102, 2017).
Moving from standards, through design guidelines, to designing AI ethics processes themselves calls us to answer three key research questions:
- How do we align ethical AI design principles and processes and accountable, responsible, and transparent AI to build collaboration, connection and human empathy?
- Where are AI ethics standards, guidelines and declarations similar, where are they different, and can they be successfully unified into a straightforward, deconflicted design document?
- What does a design-based process for ethical, accountable, responsible and transparent artificial intelligence look like?
Literature Review | The Current State of AI Ethics
Ethics-based approaches to developing Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems, and the deployment of these systems, have been with us since Turing’s seminal paper on “thinking machines” (Turing, 1950). As advances in Machine Learning, Natural Language Processing (NLP), Deep Learning, and other forms of algorithmic decision-making supported processes continue, AI-associated artifacts are increasingly deployed on our roads, in our doctors’ offices, in our marketplaces, our places of work, our homes, our courts and our banks. AI system (AIS) failures, along with the resulting fears and concerns of additional failures have driven a large increase in academic and news calls for “AI ethics” (Choudhury, Lee and Kurenkov, 2019). AI ethics — particularly design-based solutions — are held as a panacea for the AI-risks (Floridi, 2019).
AI risks and opportunities are onlife, infosphere risks and opportunities (Floridi, 2014, 2019). The current advancing state of AI is the result of several concurrent technological developments, including the global internet, advances in graphics processing units, due in large part to the rise of online gaming and breakthroughs in the development of neural nets and deep learning, all of which would not exist as they do without global, ubiquitous, connected, digital infrastructure, protocols and systems. AI problems are onlife, infosphere problems and must be addressed as such.
AI risks fall into two central categories (World Economic Forum, 2017); firstly, the attention grabbing, existential risk of the catastrophic development and deployment of a form of artificial super-intelligence in a “singularity” — type scenario (Bostrom, 2014), and secondly, the far more mundane, but already partially-realized risk of AI acting as an inequality accelerator; a tool of doubts which are born of unreliability.
Regardless of scale, AI risks of both type, ultimately, are risks of unreliability. “Algorithmic bias”, the “black box” problem, SkyNet, and the fatal collision between an autonomous uber and a pedestrian crossing the street are all problems of doubt and trust. In writing about physicians distrust of IBM’s Watson For Oncology, Bloomberg explains that “(I)f people don’t know how AI comes up with its decisions, they won’t trust it” (Bloomberg, 2018).
Doubt, as a risk to artificial intelligence systems’ promise, has been with us long before Alan Turing (1950) and Gödel (1931) debated (Copeland, 2008) the fundamental abilities of computers to resolve uncertainty. Yet Turing’s famed test, and his description of the primarily emotional responses of humans outsmarting Turing machines (Turing, 1950) in relieving their machine — fostered doubts, are descriptions of doubt’s risk. Floridi’s description of the damage fake news causes in the infosphere is a description of the same kind of unease that Turing imparts to his “imitation game” participants and that AI doubt creates.
“At some point, you don’t know what is what. And that is the real damage….”
With AI maturing the internet, we, as the society which lives in an ever-new world, are on the forefront of a new way of living in near perpetual doubt. We are a “4th revolution” information society, living in a maximal infosphere (Floridi, 2014) that is increasingly autonomous. In the Onlife Manifesto Floridi, Taddeo, Ess, Brodent, Lobet-Maris and others (2015) think together about the challenges, opportunities and fundamental changes that our onlife existences bring to human capacity for empathy (Dewandre, 2015), attention (Broadbent & Lobet-Marie, 2015) and understanding (Ess, 2015). Changes that threaten to reduce our capacity for empathy, attention and understanding aren’t created by AI, but by our current post-hoc “hacker way” (Zuckerberg, 2012) approach to technology development. Again, these risks aren’t inherent in algorithms themselves, but are born of the system development and business processes which deploy them without regard to end users (Kirsch, 2017).
Our existence in the infosphere is an interconnected, networked existence, and the risks that AI standards, declarations and guidelines seek to mitigate are risks unique to the infosphere. These connections locate us in a transitional space, a digital mangrove (Floridi, 2014) or ecotone (Pendleton-Julian, 2009) environment defined by continuous (Pendleton-Julian, 2009), seemingly chaotic (Magretts, et al., 2016) upheaval. Onlife doubt, as a central fallout from AI failures, is part of this upheaval caused by the conflict between complex systems.
Explainability is being held as of the core requirements of ethical AI systems which are appropriate to deployment (Gunning, DARPA 2017), whether in the form of counterfactuals (Wachter, 2018) or simply to make algorithmic outcomes acceptable to users (Kirsch, 2018) businesses and other organizations (Chander, Srinivasan, Chelian et al, 2018). But as, Wachter, Kirch and Danish Tech Ambassador Casper Klynge point out “one of the largest risks is that we lose faith in the power of technology and its ability to raise the human condition.” (Klynge, Azzar 16:10–16:29, 2018). AI doubts are crisis of faith.
In speaking directly to designers and developers, IBM’s Everyday Ethics for Artificial Intelligence: A practical guide for designers & developers handbook declares “(t)o create and foster trust between humans and machines, you must understand the ethical resources and standards available for reference during the designing, building, and maintenance of AI.” (Cutler, 2018). To truly build trust in AI, we must go further than understanding guidelines and standards. Rory Sutherland reminds us that“even experts can lose the plot. We fall back on a communication schema which is primarily about transmitting information, rather than as a means of generating and arousing emotions: trust, confidence, affection (Sutherland, 2017).
Using design as research (Findeli, 2008) to explore how we can design AI ethics that generate trust, confidence and empathy is key to deploying user-centred, outcome focussed systems. The very “unknowable” nature of complex systems requires that these design approaches be robustly innovative (Floridi, 2019) and elastic (Pendleton-Julian, 2009), while founded on the same outcomes that we are seeking; those build of accountability, responsibility and transparency.
Goal, Outline and Methodology
The goal of this inquiry is the creation of an adaptable, globally accessible AI ethics design process toolkit that builds trust in AI ethics design processes and fosters empathy for humans as users and key components of AI systems.
Chapter 1 | The Case for Design Ethics in AI | Accountable, Responsible, Transparent AI Design in the Autonomous Infosphere
Chapter 2 | Unifying the complex, complementary and conflicting approaches to AI ethics in standards, guidelines, and declarations documents world-wide; why contextual outcomes matter for innovation ecotones
Chapter 3 | Context-based, User Experience Design For AI in Ecotone Environments
Chapter 4 | Ground-truthing, Co-design and Building an Al Design Ethics Community of Excellence
Chapter 5 | Analysis of Qualitative and Quantitative Design Inputs
Chapter 6 | Empathy Through Design: The Design Ethics For AI Toolkit
Chapter 7 | Measuring Impacts and Next Steps
Research Design and Methodology
This inquiry is designed using matured, user experience (UX) informed, Agile approaches matured through an elastic, innovation ecotone model (Pendleton-Julian, 2009) to engagement and problem solving. This approach means that the phase stages will overlap, goals will flex and adjust with data findings, engagement feedback and ongoing developments in the field. This process is purposely, openly and transparently iterative so to help foster trust in AI, the AI ethics design process toolkit and empathy for humans using AI.
Data utilized includes the text of current and emerging AI ethics standards, guidelines and declarations, outputs of Natural Language Processing and Word Clustering, qualitative and quantitative measures drawn from inputs including social media engagements, interviews, discussions and UX co-design sessions.
Phase One | Declaring project intention and outlining the accountable, responsible and transparent approach. Ethics approval will be established at this stage.
Phase Two | Preliminary unification and deconfliction of current and emerging AI ethics standards, guidelines and declarations, using Python, NLP, word clustering maps and/or R.
Phase Three | Active Outreach, Inputs Gathering and Community Building.
Phase Four | Collaborative AI Ethics Design Process co-design. The preliminary toolkit will be published online at this point.
Phase Five | Analysis. While the qualitative and quantitative inputs will dictate approaches, it is currently anticipated that a Fruchterman–Reingold visualization algorithm, and/or LEMAN geometric deep learning will be used to identify the patterns of connection between the various nodes.
Phase Six | Reflection and adjustments.
Phase Seven | AI Ethics Design Toolkit launch.
Data Inputs — And Impact — Through Engagement
This inquiry will build trust in AI.
It will build trust in AI by fostering empathy and understanding among those who design and deploy and the humans who are key components of AI systems.
It will build trust in AI by creating a collaborative, participatory AI ethics design process in which users, designers, developers, experts and technologists work together to forge the path ahead in a process which itself is accountable, responsible and transparent. By creating a formalized ethics-based design toolkit through this engagement process this project will model the same approaches to AI ethics development needed in AI systems development and deployment.
Data will be gathered across each design phase through literature reviews, during elastic design through broad onlife engagement feedback and Agile, UX-styled co-design sessions. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis, assisted by NLP, machine learning and word clustering will augment all the inputs in the process from the literature review, to the co-design sessions, to the engagement events themselves.
Engagement is vital process in this inquiry and key to all success. Engagements will be the source for much of the data collected and will guide the use of that data to build the AI ethics design toolkit while simultaneously building an AI design ethics community of practice.
Developing a design process to help deliver accountable, responsible and transparent AI must in and of itself be accountable, responsible and transparent. This approach requires collaboration through elastic, responsive engagement (Pendleton-Julian, 2009) — not mere consultation. While utilizing technical skills in programing and design, the design process itself and toolkit must be understandable and useable by non-technical experts. The design process must be able to simplify complex processes and information to foster clear understanding, and vitally, build trust in AI, technology, and the process itself (Floridi, Cowls, Dignum et. al, 2018).
Engaging the wider, global AI community requires an extensive, on-going and flexibly iterative communications approach to gather inputs that build trust. Building on the Agile design process already familiar in software development the engagement design model employed builds on emerging AI ethics design principles.
As the University of Bath ART-AI program is an emerging centre of excellence, a focus both on this particular research project as well as the projects which form the corpus of inquiry in the Impact of AI on Society project is required to place this inquiry within the wider context.
Social Media Engagement
Following the user-centred iterative processes proposed by various designers (Couldry 2003, Cutler, 2018, Pendleton-Julian, 2009, Zeller & Cortise, 2020, Findeli, 2018) in response to complex, transitional and/or AI deployment environments, “onlife” style engagement is a key tool for this inquiry. Connecting with experts and non-experts alike through a combination of online, social media based, academic and community-based outreach actions throughout the infosphere is both a key data source and a key outcome for this inquiry.
Key social media-based engagement channels will include:
ART-AI Design Ethics Facebook
ART-AI Podcast & Vlog
ART-AI Design Ethics LinkedIn
ART-AI Design Ethics Github
ART-AI Design Ethics on Wikipedia
ART-AI Design Ethics Blog on Medium.com
Journal presentations | Project chapters will be submitted to relevant journals such as Philosophy of Technology, Science, Technology, & Human Values, Technical Communication Quarterly and Design Issues.
ART-AI Annual Conference | The ART-AI program announced the annual ART-AI conference which brings together students with peers, experts and wider peers.
Conferences | Project findings will be proposed to relevant conferences including NeurIPS, AI For Good, FAT and All Tech is Human. Specific focus in years 2 and 3 will be on attending Chinese AI ethics conferences.
Co-drafting | Opportunities for co-drafting papers and conference submissions with potential partners (listed below) will be explored.
ART-AI Masterclasses | The ART-AI program calls for students to participate in yearly masterclasses with senior experts.
Interviews, Twitter chats, Presentations and Knowledge Exchanges | Additional engagements with academic partners outside the traditional realms of academic publication and presentation will help connect powerful thinkers and research excellence with the diverse and collaborative developing AI design ethics community of practice, proactively extending our impact, influence and partnerships far beyond academic institutions.
Community Engagement | Multiple direct engagements with the wider community that bring participants directly into process co-design will be fostered.
Coffee with a computer scientist
AI Challenge Co-Creation Workshop
AI Design Ethics public lecture series
UX public co-design sessions
ART-AI Placement and Research Visit
Community AI Design Ethics co-design training
IEEE P7000 Standards Series participation (underway)
Partnership Outreach | Partnerships will be sought with:
Digital Ethics Lab at the Oxford Internet Institute
IBM’s AI Design Group
IEEE P7000 Series AI Ethics Standards participants
Stanford Centre for Human Centered Artificial Intelligence
Laura Sherling and Andrew DeRosa of Pratt Design Ethics group
Government of Canada Digital Service
Chen Xiaoping professor and director of the Robotics Laboratory at the University of Science and Technology of China
Office of Denmark’s Technology Ambassador
ART-AI fellow cohort students, faculty and industry partners
Year 1 MRes
Course work, skills building.
Launch of Social Media, Academic and Community Engagements including ART-AI Design Ethics Blog and Podcast.
AI Ethics Standards analysis and unification process starts.
Year 2 PhD
AI Ethics Standards analysis and unification process completed.
Social Media, Academic and Community Engagements continue.
Preliminary draft AI Design Ethics Toolkit pre-beta published.
Inputs analysis continues.
Social Media, Academic and Community Engagements continue.
AI Design Ethics Toolkit beta published.
AI Design Ethics Toolkit beta review.
AI Design Ethics Toolkit Improvements.
Dissertation Drafting Begins.
AI Design Ethics Toolkit pre1.0 release.
Dissertation drafting, review, edits.
Social Media, Academic and Community Engagements continue.
AI Design Ethics Toolkit 1.0 release.
Follow-up and review.
Dissertation drafting completed.
Dissertation edits and defence.
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