Blog: Do you know how intelligence(AI) developed in the past 70 years?
Since Alan Turing first proposed the concept of “Turing Machine” in 1943, AI has experienced a history of 86 years. This article we review the landmark events of the past 70 years in the form of infographics and summarizes several directions and technical applications of AI development, as well as the top 10 AI companies and national rankings.
The AI “A Brief History of Graphics” below, covers the important milestones and technical nodes of AI from concept origin to birth and development, the main classification of AI technology and the application direction of important technologies.
AI Chronology (1943–2014)
In 1943, Alan Turing invented the “Turing Machine”, setting the benchmark for the judgment of intelligent machines: “The computer that could fool someone into thinking that they were talking to a real person .”
In 1950, science fiction writer Asimov published a short sci-fi novel “I, Robot”, which proposed a far-reaching “three principles of robotics.”
In 1956, John McCarthy first proposed the concept of “artificial intelligence”, which prevailed at the time from “top to bottom.” That is, a pre-programmed computer governs human behaviour.
In 1968, the first universal mobile robot was born, and it was able to determine its own actions through the surrounding environment.
In 1969, Ma Wen Minsky, founder of the MIT Laboratories, served as a consultant for the film “2001 Roaming Space” by Stanley Kubrick, shaping the screen image of the super intelligent computer HAL9000.
In 1973, the AI ” Winter” theory began to appear. The huge investment in AI received almost no returns and results, and funding for the AI industry began to decline sharply.
In 1981, the concept of “narrow AI” was born. More research is not looking for general intelligence but instead shifts to the “narrow AI” field for smaller, specialized tasks.
In 1990, Rodney Brooks put forward the research idea of “from the bottom up” to develop a neural network that simulates the way human brain cells work and learn new behaviours.
In 1997, the supercomputer “Deep Blue” came out and defeated the top chess player and super master Gary Kasparov in the chess human-machine war.
In 2002, iRobot built the world’s first home automation sweeping robot.
In 2005, the US military began investing in automated robots, and Boston Power’s “machine dog” was one of the first products.
In 2008, Google released a speech recognition application on the iPhone, which opened the wave of later digital voice assistants (Siri, Alexa, Cortana).
In 2010, at the Shanghai World Expo, 20 dancing robots from NAO Company presented a perfect dance of 8 minutes.
In 2011, IBM Watson defeated the best performing human players in the Jeopardy answer contest.
In 2014, 64 years after the birth of the Turing test, a chat robot named Eugene Goostman passed the Turing test. Google has invested heavily in autonomous driving technology, and Skype has launched real-time voice translation.
The main classification of AI : strong AI and weak AI
Strong AI, also known as “general AI”, has universal human cognitive ability and is intelligent enough to solve unfamiliar problems.
Weak AI, also known as “narrow AI,” refers to AIs designed and trained specifically for specific tasks, such as Apple’s virtual voice assistant Siri.
Another method to classify is:
From reactive machines to self-awareness
Reactive machine. Representative example: dark blue. Can identify the situation on the board and make predictions, but no memory.
Limited memory. Can use past memories to help make future decisions. Representative example: automatic driving.
The Self-awareness: A machine with the self-awareness that could understand its current state and can use existing information to infer the feelings of others, Which does not exist yet.
The future of AI
Fully automated transportation: AI technology will make the future traffic more comprehensive and intelligent.
Cyborg technology: AI and robotics will help us transcend cognitive and physical limits.
Instead of humans engaging in dangerous occupations: robots and drones will replace us in dangerous missions such as bomb demolition, and we don’t have to risk our lives in order to complete these tasks.
Addressing climate change: One day, AI can use big data to gain the ability to judge trends and use that information to solve major problems like climate change.
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